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The Bombay Textile
Research Association

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Research Association

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MINISTRY OF TEXTILES, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

DEVELOPMENT OF TEST METHOD FOR ANALYSING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM CONTENT IN DYES, PIGMENTS AND TEXTILE AUXILIARIES

HIGHLIGHTS:

Hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) is a known mutagenic and carcinogenic substance. Cr+6 is commonly found in textile dyes, pigments, paints, inks leather products and textile auxiliaries. Due to the high toxicity most of the government regulations restricted the use of Cr+6 in consumer products. At present the only test method available to test Cr+6 is ISO method for leather products. This test method is not suitable for dyes and pigments due to the high matrix interference. Under this project an attempt will be made to develop a test method to test Cr+6 in dyes and pigments. About twenty five dyes and pigments including chrom pigments and few textile auxiliaries were collected from various manufactures. The total chromium content in these dyes and pigments were estimated by microwave digestion followed by ICP-OES analysis. It was observed that in most of the chrome based pigments, Chromium content is very high. This chromium could be either in trivalent or hexavalent or in both the forms. Hence to segregate the trivalent and hexavalent chromium various studies were done such as (i) effect of various acids and alkalies (ii) effect of oxidation and reduction agents (iii) effect of microwave digestion and conventional acid digestion (iv) effect of various temperatures (v) effect of activated charcoal and (vi) effect of bleaching agents. Since separation of Cr+6 from dyes and pigments is a challenging job, the above mentioned studies were not showing positive results to achieve the final goal. Hence further investigations are planned.

MELT SPINNING OF PVDF / ZnO NANOSTRUCTURE HYBRID FILAMENT FOR WEARABLE SMART TEXTILE

HIGHLIGHTS:

Among the different types of smart materials, piezoelectric materials are the most widely used because of their fast electromechanical response. Zinc oxide is a piezoelectric material and its high aspect ratio nanostructure shows excellent piezoelectric properties. PVDF (Poly vinylidenefluoride) also shows good piezoelectric property. Under this project, synthesis of ZnO nanorods is done successfully and melt-blended with the PVDF in different percentages. Spinning of the blended polymer is in progress.

NANO-FIBRE APPLICATION TO ENHANCE THE ANTI-CLOGGING PROPERTIES OF GEOTEXTILES

HIGHLIGHTS:

When the pore size of geo-filter is larger than the fine soil particle, too many fines could reduce the discharge capacity and increase the filter resistance. The smaller but apparent pore size is needed to prevent clogging. Deposition of thin Nano fibrous web with small pore size on geotextile can help to reduce this problem. Electrospinning is an efficient and versatile technique to obtain fibers with very small pores and diameters ranging from several microns to tens of nanometers. In this project, Nylon 6 polymer is selected for the spinning of nanofiber and deposits the same on the surface of spunbonded Polypropylene to minimize the pore size and improve the anticlogging properties of geotextile. Required spinning parameters are standardized for Nylon 6 in the needle less electrospinning machine with wire electrodes. Deposition time is standardized to obtain the required pore size of the nanofiber mat. Further experiments on study of clogging behavior and water permeability of the PVD substrate with nanofiber mat is going on.

DEVELOPMENT OF COTTON WASTE BASED OIL ABSORBENT FOR OIL SPILL CLEAN-UP

HIGHLIGHTS:

As Oil spill clean-up is a global concern due to its environmental and economic impact, various commercial systems, including synthetic fibres like polypropylene, have been developed to clean up the oil spillage. But these methods pollute the environment in another way such as disposal of used oil sorbents, non-biodegradable in nature (hence non eco-friendly), etc. Hence, in this project work, waste cotton, which is bio-degradable, is used as oil absorbent, after subjecting into various modifications. Raw cotton waste has been procured and cleaned in a trash separator to separate out lint, trash, and micro dust of cotton fibre. The cleaned cotton waste was processed in a needle punching machine to make a non-woven lap. Water and oil absorbency property of this cotton waste was studied. To enhance the hydrophobic and oleophilic property of cotton by various techniques will be applied in future work.

DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC SERVO CONTROL DRIVE INDUSTRIAL TFO TWISTER FOR HEAVY DENIER FILAMENT YARN

HIGHLIGHTS:

The drawback of conventional gear drive TFO twisters are high energy consumption, difficulty in maintaining low twist level in industrial yarns, etc. In association with a industrial partner, BTRA fabricated a TFO machine with servo controlled drive that saves power to the extent of 25% compared to conventional gear drive machine. This machine was displayed in the PlastIndia 2018 exhibition.

ANALYSIS OF ECO-MANAGEMENT IN INDIAN TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY

HIGHLIGHTS:

Compared to other stages of textile production, textile processing industry exceedingly impacts on environment due to high resource consumption profile in terms of water, chemicals, energy and release of highly contaminated effluent. The industry often lacks the understanding, skills and managerial capacity to respond to these environmental issues. Therefore to create awareness about the necessity of an assessment study and improvement in their performance on Environmental issues, BTRA has undertaken this project. BTRA audited 6 textile processing houses for eco management awareness and eco management implementation in their units. Analysis is being done for ETP, boiler flue gas emissions, noise level, chemical management system and utility/energy conservation practices. Also, effluent samples (both inlet and outlet) were collected for its characteristic analysis.

STUDIES ON EFFECT OF PLASMA TREATMENT FOR ADHESION IMPROVEMENT OF COATED TECHNICAL TEXTILES

HIGHLIGHTS:

Plasma treatment of nylon fabric was carried out at atmospheric pressure using helium gas. Wicking height showed the improved wettability of the plasma treated samples. SEM images of the plasma treated fabric showed the surface roughness. Plasma treated fabric was coated with PU polymer and adhesion force between the fabric and coating was measured by peel bond test. It was observed that with increase in plasma exposure time there is significant improvement in peel bond strength. Tensile strength of the nylon was increased slightly at lower plasma treatment power and time.

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA TREATMENT FOR ENHANCING THE CONDUCTING PROPERTIES OF TEXTILES DOPED WITH INTRINSIC CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS

HIGHLIGHTS:

Natural and synthetic fabrics were pre-treated with atmospheric pressure plasma with dielectric barrier discharge method, to improve the binding of conductive polymers coating on substrates for improving conductivity. A range of gas mixtures in dielectric barrier discharge and treatment times were employed to investigate plasma induced effect on surface roughness and hydrophilicity. The changes in Wettability and morphology were studied by wicking measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Effect of the plasma treatment on binding strength was analyzed by studying abrasion resistance and surface resistivity. It was found that both highest conductivity and strongest interfacial bonding (improved adhesion) were achieved by helium-oxygen plasma pre-treatment for polyester, Polyester-cotton blend substrate. The increase in hydrophilicity and surface functionalisation, gave improved adhesion. Atmospheric ageing of polypyrrole coated fabrics can also be controlled using plasma pre-treatment.

STUDIES ON RADIATION INDUCED MODIFICATION OF TEXTILE MATERIALS

HIGHLIGHTS:

Research work on ‘Functional finishing of cotton fabric by electron beam synthesized silver nanoparticles’ was carried out. In this work, a radiation induced synthesis of silver particles in cotton fabrics, padded with different initial concentration of aqueous alcoholic silver nitrate solution, has been accomplished by exposing them to different doses of electron beam (EB) radiation in an inert environment. The treated fabrics were characterized for the surface morphology in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet protection factor (UPF). In SEM images, these are seen as dispersed on the fibre surface and their dimensions fall in nano range. The deposited particles have an average size of 81 nm. Deposition of silver particles conferred the fabric with UV-blocking property. The values of ultra-violet light protection factor could be altered by varying the solution concentration and to a less extent by EB dose. Ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) of treated fabric remained similar even after ten washing cycles when carried out as per standard washing procedure.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, STABILITY AND STRUCTURE OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH FUNCTIONALIZED FIBRES.

HIGHLIGHTS:

Resin such as Polyester resin, Epoxy resin and natural oil resin are proposed to be used in combination with Natural fibres, Polyester, polypropylene and Nonwovens while making composites.

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GEOTEXTILE CREEP RUPTURE BEHAVIOUR

HIGHLIGHTS:

BTRA designed and developed a test instrument to evaluate the functional performance of the Geotextiles for creep and creep rupture behaviour that will be meet the requirements of ASTM standard test methods of ASTM D 5262 and ASTM D 6992.

STUDIES ON TEXTILES DOPED WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

HIGHLIGHTS:

Prototypes such as Heating Pad/blanket, Warm Jackets, Smart Mat, etc. are developed. Two patents are filled. Demonstration of Prototypes are shown at various textile exhibitions for the past 3 years.

DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD FOR TESTING AND ANALYZING THE FORMALDEHYDE CONTENT IN TEXTILE AUXILIARIES

Industrial Benefits & Feed Back

The project is mainly focused on the development of a test method for analyzing the formaldehyde content in textile auxiliaries. Since the formaldehyde is a hazardous substance and restricted its use in the textile industry and at present there is no scientific/ validated test method available to quantify the presence of formaldehyde in trace levels, hence the textile industry is facing lot of difficulty to control the formaldehyde in their finished product especially for export materials. The developed test method can be successfully used to quantify the formaldehyde content in the input raw materials as well as the final products like binder, resin, dye fixing agent, softener etc. This method can serve as preventive approach to avoid use of formaldehyde by the processors.

In order to disseminate the information and to put to practical use, a presentation based on the developed test method was made in the BIS TX-05 committee meeting. Based on the recommendation and feed back of the committee.

Further, as a part of method validation of the in house developed method as per the feed back by the Industry representatives, was validated by conducting the Inter Laboratory Comparison (ILC) testing. It may be noted that the BIS is represented by the stake holders (Industry representatives) who are either user of the test method or test results for their business prospects. The representatives of the industry realized the importance of the outcome of the work and gave feedback for ILC and making it as a national standard for testing.

The work was presented at the expert advisory committee meeting of BTRA on 21st March, 2012 which was appreciated by the members.

STUDIES ON FIRE RETARDANT FINISHING OF APPAREL AND HOME TEXTILES TOWARDS MEETING THE EXPORT REQUIREMENT

Industrial Feedback

The project was aimed at creating awareness about hazardous nature of various FR chemicals used by the industry and trade. As part of the project we have conducted awareness workshop/seminars at Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Ahmadabad and Bhilwara. Nearly 300 industry personnel have participated in the interaction. During these workshops, the participants were impressed upon the ill effects of various FR chemicals and their eco-friendly/ unfriendly properties. Further, the ways and means to characterize them to find out their presence in the finishing chemicals as well as finished products were given. Since the project address the Niche component of textile market i.e. FR products, the participants were interactive and took keen interest in the dissemination of workshop especially those who do business with EU and USA. It was noticed that the industry representatives by and large were not aware of the hazardous nature of FR chemicals like the azo dyes. During the interaction the participants were briefed about material safety data sheets (MSDS) and interpretation of the same as per international requirement was given. Hence it is informed that the dissemination of seminars have served the purpose of bringing awareness to the industry about the hazardous nature of the substances and the legislative requirements of EU and USA. Further the implication of usage of such chemicals in terms of poor business prospects of export of FR treated textile goods containing these types of finishes were discussed. Details of minutes of the interaction in each seminar are enclosed in the completion report of the project.

Aspects pertaining to commercialization of the project findings:

  1. The positive list of the FR chemicals will be provided to Prospective industries.
  2. Protocol has been developed for evaluation of the FR chemicals; this will be used for evaluating the FR chemicals submitted by the industry. The necessary feedback for its use as well as improvement will be given to the industry.


The work was presented at the expert advisory committee meeting of BTRA on 21st March, 2012 which was appreciated by the members.

PLASMA TECHNOLOGY FOR TEXTILE PROCESSING

Industry feedback/ response

The continuous endeavor to disseminate the project outcome by way of the presentations and publications resulted in interactions with industries from various textile segments. The units approached BTRA for exploring the potentials of atmospheric pressure plasma technology for their specific requirements. The names of industries and specification of work done for them are not mentioned because of confidentiality nature of work. However, some of the areas in which specific application addressed are as under:

Manufacturers of denim and cotton related products have approached to impart functional properties to cotton fabrics. Pilot scale trials were conducted on the atmospheric pressure plasma machine at BTRA. The initial trials have shown encouraging results for imparting functional properties to cotton fabrics. Investigation is going on at their end regarding the future collaboration for use of plasma technology.

Pilot scale trials were conducted for an industry manufacturing coated abrasives based polyester fabrics. The studies were performed for improvement in wettability and adhesion promotion of the treated fabrics.

Dialogue is going on with other players in the synthetic fibre manufacture in India to meet the specific targets using of plasma technology.

Commercialization aspects:

The interested industries will be provided know-how for plasma assisted desizing, plasma assisted dyeing and plasma assisted finishing. The necessary technical support in the adoption of new technology as well as conducting initial trials will be done by BTRA with use of pilot scale plasma machinery installed in the BTRA labs.

The work was presented at the expert advisory committee meeting of BTRA on 21st March, 2012 which was appreciated by the members.

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF REELING-CUM-TWISTING AND SPINNING MACHINES FOR NON-MULBERRY SILK

HIGHLIGHTS:

Achievements were made against the target by developing reasonably productive and quality oriented miniature silk fibre processing machinery in the non-mulberry sector by BTRA. The productivity turns around 20-25 % on higher level against the latest machinery available in this sector. The mechanical stability of the machines is so sound that the machine efficiency has gone up to an encouraging level. Hence the achievements made under the project have been commendable. With this development, there will be an end for all primitive and health hazardous practices presently adapted in silk yarn manufacturing of non-mulberry silk sector. The results need to be scaled up.

EXPLORATION OF NEW AVENUES IN APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE PROCESSING WITH RESPECT TO QUALITY IMPROVEMENT AND SOURCE REDUCTION IN STREAM POLLUTION

HIGHLIGHTS:

Desizing of cotton fabrics(sized with starch-based composition) and weight reduction of polyester (to improve quality) in a process house lead to discharge of effluent stream with high pollutional load. Under this project, application of enzymes in these processes was studied for reduction in pollutional load of effluent stream as well as for changes in physical properties of fabric quality.

IMPROVISATION OF EXISTING HANK SIZING PROCESS AT DECENTRALIZED POWERLOOM SECTOR TO UPGRADE QUALITY AND FABRIC REALIZATION OF VALUE ADDED YARN DYED SORTS

HIGHLIGHTS:

A hank sizing machine was designed to overcome and eliminate the various shortcomings associated with the conventional hank sizing process. Based on the design, a prototype model of the machine was developed and sizing trials on the hanks were undertaken to study the efficacy of the machine. This machine is in operation in the Powerloom Service Centre at Malegaon.

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER BASED TRAINING MODULES FOR TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

HIGHLIGHTS:

Design and development of computer-based training modules for Total Quality Management (TQM) in textiles is done. The CD-ROM prepared covers various aspects such as concepts of TQM (like ISO 9000 / TPM / 5S / Kaizen), case studies in mills, self-learning, etc. and it can be used interactively.

DEVELOPMENT OF TEST BENCH FOR TESTING AT VARIOUS PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS, CIRCUITS AND ASSEMBLIES, USED IN TEXTILE MANUFACTURE

HIGHLIGHTS:

To develop a test bench for testing pneumatic components, BTRA has assembled a pneumatic test bench and prepared a comprehensive training package to train technicians for understanding the basic functions as well as assembling different pneumatic components / electro-pneumatic circuits. The testing methods to test various pneumatic components are prepared.

ECO-FRIENDLY FINISHING TO NATURAL DYED FABRIC WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DECENTRALIZED SECTOR

HIGHLIGHTS:

Dyed fabrics (dyed with several natural dyes) were treated with conventionally used cross-linking agent (DMDHEU), very low formaldehyde (VLF) and no formaldehyde polycarboxylic acids. These finished fabrics were then evaluated for changes in shade and different physical properties.

DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED SYSTEM TO IMPROVE AND OPTIMIZE THE PERFORMANCE OF STENTERS IN PROCESSING THE TEXTILE FABRICS TO SAVE ENERGY AND IMPROVE QUALITY

HIGHLIGHTS:

Integrated system for stenters using microcontroller and peripheral IC is successfully designed and developed by BTRA. The system is designed in such a manner that it can be retrofitted on any existing stenter machine. The stand alone system has all the facilities such as key board, alphanumeric display, battery back up, data retrieval facility, etc. to enable the operator to know the current status of all machine parameters. The data is continuously monitored by the system which can be communicated to central PC for long term data storage, analysis and report generation. The field trial has proved the reliability and trouble free operation of the system in mill conditions. It has improved machine performance and fabric quality.

DEVELOPMENT OF SHADES ON CELLULOSIC YARNS AND FABRICS MEANT FOR VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED BY DECENTRALIZED POWERLOOM SECTOR USING TRICHROMATIC REACTIVE DYES

HIGHLIGHTS:

Using trichromatic reactive dyes, various shades are developed on cellulosic yarns and fabrics (woven/knitted) meant for value added products manufactured by decentralized powerloom sector. Also,a database on the same is built that is useful in giving shade matching services to textile units.

DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL ECO-FRIENDLY FRICTION REDUCING AGENT TO MINIMIZE RING YARN HAIRINESS TO ENHANCE TEXTILE EXPORTS

HIGHLIGHTS:

A low odour, unique eco-friendly ring lubricant has been developed which reduces co-efficient of friction between the ring and traveller and in turn hairiness. Shop-floor studies carried out showed 30 % reduction in hairiness in normal ring conditions without incurring much cost. Use of BTRA ring lubricant has brought about drastic reduction in hairiness, improved traveller life due to smooth running of the traveller and better fabric appearance. Many mills are successfully using this newly developed product.(Technology transferred to M/s. C & C Textiles Pvt.Ltd., Ahmedabad).

ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL AND FORMULATING / SUGGESTING MEASURES FOR FUEL SAVING IN DECENTRALIZED PROCESS HOUSE UNITS

HIGHLIGHTS:

The study has helped in generating awareness and effecting fuel savings in the process house units to a greater extent. Many of these units have acknowledged the fuel savings achieved through BTRA’s assistance.

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ALTERNATIVE AND COST-EFFECTIVE ROUTE FOR HEAT-SETTING OF DIFFERENT SYNTHETIC FIBRES/FILAMENTS/FABRICS USING MICROWAVE RADIATION TECHNIQUE

HIGHLIGHTS:

The project opened up new avenues for the use of microwave radiation technique in man-made fibre industry, especially for polyester. Efforts are made to develop high tenacity PET fibre by reducing molecular relaxation during microwave treatment. Effect of microwave radiations with different lossys on the surface of these fibres are studied and compared with conventionally heat set samples. (Patent Received).

FIBRE QUALITY ENHANCEMENT BY PROCESS CONTROL AT GINNING

HIGHLIGHTS:

Under this project, studies were carried out to find out the effect of moisture level on the quality of ginned cotton by varying the moisture level in the kapas before ginning. Various varieties of cotton fibres ranging from short staple to extra long staple were studied. The results show that there is an improvement in 2.5 % span length and bundle strength of fibres when it is processed with medium(7-8%) and high moisture (10-12 %) level in the kapas.

USE OF 'STROBOSCOPE' KIT TO ESTIMATE AND OPTIMIZE AIR CONSUMPTION ON AIR-JET LOOM AND TO EXPLORE THE POSSIBILITIES OF MODIFYING THE ASSEMBLIES OF AIR MEDIA TO ENHANCE ENERGY CONSERVATION

HIGHLIGHTS:

Consumption of compressed air, used in air-jet looms for weft insertion, was studied with the help of Stroboscope in a number of mills. Various makes of air-jet looms were observed for air consumption and air losses. After collecting required data and conducting different studies, controlled trials were taken to reduce air consumption and the results were encouraging. Also, studies were undertaken by using modified design of the relay nozzle and its effect on air consumption. Results show that there is a scope for enhancing production and reducing air consumption.

DYEING LYOCELL FIBRE WITH DIFFERENT CLASSES OF REACTIVE DYES

HIGHLIGHTS:

Lyocell fibre is a new type of regenerated cellulosic fibre. This fibre is completely manufactured by eco-friendly process. Further, Lyocell fibre offers several advantages as compared to viscose or other regenerated fibres Bi-functional dyed fabric, before or after enzyme treatment, showed lower fibrillation as compared to monofunctional dyed fabric. Information gathered from the studies has been transferred to technologists engaged in textile processing industry, both in the organized and decentralized sector through group discussions, presentation at All-India Conference and Seminars, exhibitions, etc.

MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL OF DUST LEVEL GENERATED ON MODERN WEAVING, PREPARATORY MACHINES AND SHUTTLELESS LOOMS

HIGHLIGHTS:

This study has created a good awareness among the mill management and technicians towards reducing air pollution and creating healthy work atmosphere.

STANDARDISATION OF WET PROCESSING CONDITIONS FOR WATER CONSERVATION VIS--VIS REDUCED WATER POLLUTIONAL LOAD

HIGHLIGHTS:

Shopfloor survey and evaluation of the consumption data, after part/full implementations of the recommendations for standardizing the processing conditions, in the participating units in woven, knitted and worsted mills showed, not only reduction of water consumption from 25 to 38 % for the similar production pattern, but also helped in reducing the cost of thermal and electrical energy. In addition, the measures suggested helped the mills to reduce the wet processing cost/unit production on colours and chemicals, improve consistency of results, lower reprocessing, load of pollutant in the discharged effluent stream, etc.

DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO-CONTROL SYSTEM TO MONITOR PRODUCTIVITY AT POWERLOOM SECTOR

HIGHLIGHTS:

BTRA has developed and installed a prototype microprocessor-based on-line performance monitoring system on a loom. This system greatly enhances the productivity of the unit and improve the quality of its products. The system evaluates the performance of loom in terms of production, efficiency, stoppage rate, duration of stoppage and cottonwise loss of the efficiency of the loom, which assist in prompt follow-up action. Parameters evaluated, on comparison with manual observations, were found to be satisfactory.

UPGRADING THE QUALITY OF KNITTED GOODS THROUGH THE USE OF COMBED ROTOR YARNS

HIGHLIGHTS:

The knitted fabric produced from combed rotor yarn showed higher bursting strength than the corresponding fabric produced from carded rotor yarns. The use of long staple, low micronnaire, stronger cotton fibre for rotor spinning improved yarn and fabric quality considerably.

DEVELOPMENT AND IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE AND MULTIFUNCTIONAL PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES FOR VALUE-ADDED FABRICS FOR EXPORT AND FOR MANUFACTURE BY DECENTRALIZED SECTOR

HIGHLIGHTS:

With respect to bio-scouring of cotton fabrics appropriate conditions for bio-scouring and peroxide bleaching have been standardized which in turn makes the process completely eco-friendly as compared with conventional alkaline scouring-peroxide bleaching. These results are transferred to process houses who are interested in switching over to bio-scouring and peroxide bleaching as such a process was beneficial with added advantage of saving in time, water and energy. (Technology transferred to M/s.Novozymes, Bangalore).

DEVELOPMENT OF ECO-FRIENDLY PATCHLESS STAIN REMOVER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE NEEDS OF THE EXPORT OF TEXTILES

HIGHLIGHTS:

An eco-friendly patchless stain remover has been developed which is highly concentrated, has low odour and is biodegradable. It contains ecological solvents that are free from chlorine derivatives. The product can be safely used without injuring/fraying the yarn or fibre as the process does not involve any rubbing and mopping. The product is being supplied to the user industry. (Technology Transferred to M/s. Rossari Biotech, Mumbai)

ESTABLISHING NORMS FOR AIR CONSUMPTION IN SPINNING AND WEAVING DEPARTMENTS

HIGHLIGHTS:

This study, the first of its kind in the Indian Textile Industry has helped in understanding the pattern of compressed air consumption rate (in cubic feet per minute)for spinning and weaving machines. The computed ratios of compressed air consumption (in cubic feet) per unit of production has helped in understanding the impact of compressed air usage on the cost of production. Based on this air consumption, norms were established for the industry.

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