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The Bombay Textile
Research Association

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Research Association

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1. KHADI AND VILLAGE INDUSTRIES COMMISSION.

PLASMA-MEDIATED NATURAL DYEING OF KHADI COTTON AND SILK

HIGHLIGHTS:

Plasma along with RE salts for natural dyeing of Khadi Cotton and Khadi silk fabrics. The results obtained were very good and the color depth ( K/S Values) increased in the case of every natural dye. Bulk dyeing of Khadi fabric was done at BTRA using 14 different natural dyes. We used our soft flow machine for natural dyeing. An incremental increase in K/S value was due to the Plasma treatment which caused the surface modification on Khadi cotton and Khadi silk. Different garments were prepared from this naturally dyed Khadi cotton and Khadi silk fabrics. The synergistic effect of Plasma treatment and RE salt could also improve the light and wash fastness properties. Better dye penetration and better dye adherence.

Plasma treatment of Khadi silk and Khadi cotton did not have any significant detrimental effect on the strength of the fabric. Rather Plasma treatment for 2 mins enhanced the K/S value and fastness properties of the dyed Khadi fabrics. All the objectives of the project were achieved. Two dye demonstrations were held – one at Gandhipuram, Coimbatore and second at Gandhipuram, Dindigul.Final project completion report was prepared along with Utilization certificate and Statement of accounts and submitted to KVIC main branch for final settlement of the funds.

2. IREL (INDIA) LIMITED, GOVT. OF INDIA UNDERTAKING-DEPARTMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY.

ECO-FRIENDLY NATURAL DYEING OF COTTON AND SILK USING RARE EARTHS METAL SALTS AS MORDANTS

HIGHLIGHTS:

‘Eco-friendly Natural Dyeing of Cotton and Silk using Rare Earths (RE) Metal Salts as Mordants’ Commercial textile dyeing almost exclusively uses synthetic colorants, which can be harmful to health and in terms of environmental pollution. As a result, natural dyeing, which exhibit better biodegradability and environmental compatibility, is increasingly getting accepted by the industry. However, natural dyes are usually associated with low color fastness with respect to washing or sunlight. These issues are traditionally overcome with heavy metal salts as mordants such as, potassium dichromate, stannous chloride, ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate. They play a role of bridging head between the fabric and the colorant molecule. However, these too have adverse impact on public health. Therefore, selecting a new mordant to replace the traditional heavy metal salts has been an important part of the development of natural dyeing of textiles. It is in this context that Rare Earth salts, which are eco-friendly and compatible with the environment, have recently attracted attention. RE mordant is attributed to its ability to form a large number of coordination bonds with amino, hydroxyl or carboxyl group ligands of the natural dye molecules and the enhanced absorption on the fiber surface caused by lowering of the Zeta potential. Thus the ionic concentrations required of RE compounds are lower.

3. MINISTRY OF DEFENCE, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD METHOD FOR IDENTIFICATION OF DOPE DYED AND EXHAUST DYED POLYESTER FIBERS/FABRICS

HIGHLIGHTS:

Dope dyeing of filaments/fibers has gained considerable interest in academics as well as in the industrial community in recent years due to the intrinsic dyeing of polyester during fiber spinning. It has altogether good physical and chemical properties than exhaust dyed material. The use of dope-dyed polyester yarn is preferred in certain specific application areas like Army uniforms due to its higher fastness properties. In this context, it has also been realized that dope dyed polymer gives less burden to the environment. Despite this, the textile processors might compromise on this front because of a marginal increase in cost. Therefore, exhaust dyeing is still popular in the textile wet processing industry not only due to its lower cost and easy accessibility but also have much more choices of different colors, unlike dope dyeing where only fiber/filaments manufacturer have their choices with a limited number of color pigments. The polyester fabric of the same color but produced by dope and exhaust-dyeing routes looks similar. However, the performance of the dope dyed and exhaust dyed polyester fabric in terms of color fastness to various chemical agents and environmental conditions is different. This difference in fabric performance may create shade-off or a tonal variation, which creates hurdles to achieve desired long-term properties. However, there is no standard method available to distinguish exhaust or dope dyeing methods of polyester fibers/fabrics. Efforts are being made in this direction, but no confirmative result has been reported yet. Therefore, there is a necessity to develop a standard method to understand whether the sample is dope dyed or dyed using the exhaust dyeing route. The current project covers a systematic investigation of the dope dyed and exhaust dyed polyester filaments/fabrics through physical, chemical, optical, thermal, microstructural, and morphological studies.

4. BOARD OF RESEARCH IN NUCLEAR SCIENCES (BRNS)

STUDIES ON PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT BY ELECTRON BEAM METHOD

HIGHLIGHTS:

Simulated industrial effluent samples of desizing, scouring, dyeing and printing processes were prepared separately at BTRA by adding chemicals such as dye, synthetic size, alkali, colour and pigment with known concentrations. All these samples were allowed to undergo conventional biological treatment and activated sludge process. BTRA fabricated laboratory model activated sludge system consisting of aeration tank and settling clarifier. Using this system, studies were undertaken to determine the efficiency of biological treatment process to reduce pollutional load in effluent samples. Efficiency of biodegradation was measured in terms of COD and BOD reduction. The results of the study indicate that activated sludge process work efficiently only for desizing effluent because this effluent contains starch that is biodegradable matter. Whereas, this system is not so effective on effluents containing refractory organic materials such as PVA, synthetic dye, oil, etc. Micro-organisms (bacteria and fungi), present in activated sludge process, were not able to degrade the complex structure of organic compounds results in sludge bulking.

5. MINISTRY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

ECO-FRIENDLY AND USER-FRIENDLY MACHINES FOR HANK PROCESSING COTTAGE INDUSTRY

BTRA developed prototype model of hank dyeing machine has served its purpose of being user-friendly. As hank movement is partially mechanized, dyeing operations on the hank dyeing machine has minimized the exposure to the hot liquor, hanks, chemicals, etc. In the weft pirn sizing machine, features like guiding path inside the sizing trough, squeezing rolls has minimized the handling of material and size bath chemicals. The productivity of the pirn sizing operation has increased 2-4 times with the pirn sizing machine. Colour fastness testing of samples on hank dyeing machine showed comparable and better results for wash, light and rubbing fastness than that for conventionally dyed samples. As the configuration of this model is very simple, it can be modified as per the production and process requirement.

CP-STIO VISIT OF DR. A.N. NETRAVALI, U.S.A., IN CONNECTION WITH IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COLLABORATIVE PROJECT ENTITLED, SURFACE MODIFICATION OF HIGH STRENGTH FIBRES/FABRICS USING PLASMA TECHNOLOGY FOR ENHANCING THE FORMATION OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES AND ENERGY/WATER SAVING DURING TEXTILE MANUFACTURING

The project was carried out jointly between BTRA and Prof. A.N. Netravali from Cornell University, Ithaca, USA. Accordingly, Prof. Netravali visited BTRA on three occasions (December 2007, December 2008 and December 2009) each for duration of two weeks. It was demonstrated that plasma processing can be used for textile fabrics to get desizing and improving dyeing behaviour. In addition, the hydrophobic coating can be deposited on the fabric to get hydrophobic properties. Detailed calculation showed that there will be substantial saving in water and energy and also reduction in pollution during processing. Plasma treatment of fibres/fabrics also improved the bonding between fibres and resins to yield better quality of composite materials. Not only glass fibres but also carbon and natural fibres could be used for forming green composites.

6. MINISTRY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROCONTROLLER BASED AUTOMATIC SYSTEM FOR RAPID SELECTION AND MOUNTING OF SAMPLES IN LOTS FOR QUALITY ANALYSIS OF TENSILE PROPERTIES OF TEXTILE YARNS

An electronically controlled system for rapid selection and mounting of samples on the tensile machine has been developed. It has been integrated with the strength elongation testing machine. Prototype model has been fabricated. Extensive trials of the system are undertaken in the mills and after the trials, units are installed in the mills.

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROPROCESSOR BASED INSTRUMENT SYSTEM FOR THE PACKAGE DYEING MACHINES TO AUTOMATE THE DYEING PROCESS FOR UNIFORM AND OPTIMUM DYEING OF YARNS IN TEXTILE MILLS

An instrument has been developed which can be used with minimum programme changes for automating and retrofitting on the existing machine to execute automatically all the different types of yarn dyeing methods in mills and improve uniformity of dyeing. Chemical metering and dosing system has been incorporated in the system for stepwise addition of dyes and salts in the dyeing vessel. Software has been designed to process the outputs of transducers and control the various parameters, viz., level, temperature and pressure. Total operation is fully automated which ensures that the dyeing process proceeds smoothly according to the set sequences in a programmed manner. The technology has been transferred to M/s. Uday Engineering Works, Thane.

DEVELOPMENT OF IT-PRODUCTION MANAGER SYSTEM TO MONITOR AND TRANSMIT PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES DATA TO CENTRAL COMPUTER FOR MANAGEMENT INFORMATION AND CORRECTIVE ACTION TO IMPROVE PRODUCTION AND MAINTAIN COST EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PRODUCT IN TEXTILE MILLS

BTRA developed micro-controller based data modules which could monitor the energy consumption and rate of production for any running machine in textile mills. The data modules are capable of being retrofitted on any working machine and continuously store the data regarding production rate and energy consumed on timely basis. The interface facility is designed and incorporated in each data module. Software is developed to enable the data transmission from each data module to central computer with identification of the machine. The software enables the management to identify the faulty processes and take corrective actions to improve the machine operations for better productivity. The software is designed to acquire various cost related data, its analysis and communication. Reliable data transmission was established successfully to transmit the monitored data to the central PC for report generation.

7. COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

DEVELOPMENT OF ANTI-FLAMMABLE, ANTI-BACTERIAL, ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING FABRICS AND THEIR USE IN TEXTILE AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

Since most of the textile materials are polymeric in nature, they are insulating in nature and create problems like static charge generation, which are not favourable in electronic industry, aviation and petrochemical industry. The problem is minimized by making the fabrics electrically conductive by various methods. In this study, various polymeric materials like polyaniline, polythiophene, polypyrol were synthesized. Their applications at various levels were studied on cotton and polyester fabrics. It has been demonstrated that the fabric can be used for heating pads integrated in apparels. Conducting fabric can be used in EMI shielding, gas and heat-sensors. Blending of these materials at small levels with polyester improves the antistatic property. Advantages of these fabrics are that they are light weight, flexible, foldable and durable. Apart from the conducting behaviour, some products have shown good antibacterial activity. Some products using nano-particles of zinc, titanium dioxide and polypyrol are also proposed.

8. DEPARTMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY, BOARD OF RESEARCH IN NUCLEAR SCIENCES, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERIC COMPOSITES : CHARGE DYNAMICS, COLORATION AND THEIR USES FOR SENSORS AND DOSIMETRY

The main aim of the project was the investigation of the interaction of y-rays, electrons and ions on conducting polymeric composites with a view to find changes in the electrical conduction, coloration and to use such modified materials for the development of sensors and dosimeters. An assembly called as ‘Vibrating Electrode System’ for the measurement of static charge was set up. The changes in the parameters were successfully correlated to the total dose received by the sample. It is then possible to use these changes for the evaluation of unknown dose. GPC studies were confirmed in order to access the molecular weights and the changes therein as a result of irradiation by y-rays. ESR is a valuable tool for detection of unpaired electrons. The technique of ESCA is a very useful for determining the pressure of certain elements and the valance state in terms of their co-ordination or immediate neighbors. In case of polymeric samples, it is useful to study the bond energy of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, etc.

9. UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

CONDUCTING POLYMERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS DEVICES

Composites of polypyrrole, polyaniline and polythiophene with PVA and PVC have been prepared. Ferric chloride and ammonium persulphate are used as catalyst. These films were further irradiated with ions of Na and Cl. Irradiation using y-rays was also done. The electrical conductivity of the composites has been studied in detail. A six channel multiplexer with PC and related hardware, software has been assembled. The materials developed are very suitable, cheap and reproducible. Cotton fabrics modified by polypyrrole and polyaniline are being used for the integrated heater, smart apparel and EMI shielding. A heating pad using Ppy doped cotton fabric has been developed and tested.

10. MINISTRY OF SOCIAL JUSTICE AND EMPOWERMENT, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

LOW COST MODIFICATION OF HANDLOOM SO AS TO BE OPERATED BY A DISABLED PERSON

Handloom weaving is distinctly a manual process. The technology does not need electric energy to drive the loom and hence can be pursued in remote villages without any hassles. The technology is maintenance and accident free. The weaving operations on handloom are carried out by human using body parts, viz., eyes, hands and legs namely (i) shedding motion operation by legs (ii) picking motion operation by right hand and (iii) beating up motion operation by left hand. Hence, disabled person especially who has lost two legs or one hand will not be able to operate very simple handloom. Taking into account the said facts, BTRA has made certain modifications in existing loom mechanism. Thereby disabled persons who have lost two legs or one hand can operate handloom and gain employment opportunity. Two modified handlooms were developed for different types of disabled persons. Also training was imparted to some disabled persons. This development has been awarded twice. The publications have been brought out on technical report and training guide.

LOW COST MODIFICATION OF CRUTCHES SO AS TO ENABLE A DISABLED PERSON TO REST WHILE WALKING

The present types of crutches available in the market have a lacuna in the sense that the person, who uses them while walking, does not get rest in between before reaching the destination and experience fatigue. These crutches provide only a supporting aid for walking. Therefore, BTRA formed a project proposal to provide a resting unit inbuilt in the existing crutches by making suitable modifications at a low cost as well as of light weight. After modification work, BTRA developed successfully a low cost modification to crutches so as to enable a disabled person to rest while walking.

11. PETROLEUM CONSERVATION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

EDUCATING AND RE-SKILLING OF DECENTRALIZED POWERLOOM OWNERS/JOBBERS/WORKERS IN BETTER LUBRICANT HANDLING TECHNIQUE AND ALSO DEVELOP A CENTRALIZED LUBRICATION SYSTEM SUITABLE FOR POWERLOOM

Survey was conducted in 4 states in India and it was noticed that oil consumption varies from 10 to 20 litres per powerloom per year. BTRA developed centralized lubrication system for powerloom and the same was installed at 16 places @ 4 in each state. Training programmes and shop-floor demonstrations were conducted at 8 places @ 2 in each state. Audio-visual aid is developed for educating owners/jobbers/oilers of the powerloom industry. It shows various oiling/greasing points of powerloom, bad operating practices which lead to the wastage of lubricants, proper handling/distribution systems and benefits of the tailor-made centralized BTRA developed lubrication system. Seminars @ one in each state is conducted.

ENERGY SAVING IN DECENTRALIZED POWERLOOM SECTOR OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY BY DEVELOPING AN ENERGY SAVER UNIT FOR SPECIFIC TYPE OF LOOMS HAVING LIMITATIONS IN THEIR DRIVE PATH

In Cimmco type of auto looms, the motor drive system is through V-belt and cone clutch. In Ruti-B type of auto looms, it is through motor pinion and gear wheel. These drive systems are such that when loom stops for any reason, the electric motor keeps on running. The population of these types of auto looms are around 1.50 lakhs in India. The electrical consumption of these looms (having a motor capacity of 1.5 or 1.75 hp) is 12 units per loom per day. The average efficiency of these looms is ranging from 65 to 70 %, thus 30 to 35 % idle motor running occurs which results in a loss of 3.5 to 4 units per loom per day. To overcome this drawback and conserve electrical energy, BTRA has developed an ‘Energy Saver Unit’ as an attachment on these looms. Field trials are conducted on 200 looms situated in decentralized powerloom clusters such as Ichalkaranji, Solapur and Madhavnagar and established its utility. Prepared audio-visual aid to highlight the drawback in the motor drive, installation of energy saver unit, functioning of the unit, its utility and improvement in life of various loom parts of motor drive mechanism. Conducted 3 workshops at Ichalkaranji, Solapur and Madhavnagar and the number of participants attended was around 120. The product is licensed to two parties for the manufacture and supply.

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